Mosaic art flourished in Syria, in the era of the Umayyad and still the wall mosaics in the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus is one of the masterpieces of this art. It should be noted to the importance of this art in the Roman era.
It is a type of photography or drawing that is based on covering the colored area small cubic pieces that don’t exceed 1 M3 and it is used in the decoration of the floor and wall voids.
- Mosaic Definition:
The term mosaic goes back originally to the Greek word “Muse” which is the nine gods of arts, beauty and inspiration who follow Apollo and who have been associated verbally with the word mosaic. This word reached Arabic language as “psephos” and is Arabized as “fass”. This art has been known for Greeks as “tessera technique” which is Latin and means “cubes” or “dices” which are the constant and cubic shapes that are cut from glass and stones. It is also called as “Opus Tesselatum” if the cubes are constant and “Opus Vermiculatum” if the cubes are not constant.
- Mosaic Industry:
First we draw the picture or mosaic topic which we want to make on a piece of paper inverted according the size we want. Then we divide the colored painting into small parts according to the count of the small pieces we want to arrange. Then we put the colored cubes according the drawing which is implemented, this process may need to refine or reduce some of the pieces, depending on the need. Then we use adhesive materials to paste the pieces ( white glue and other adhesive materials ). Then we place the drawing with a wooden or metal frame so that the paper is at the bottom then we prepare a set of cement and fine sand mixed with water and pour it on the mosaic pieces inside the frame and put it aside to get dry. Then we turn the frame and we use a wet sponge on the paper to extract the drawing so that we get a colored mosaic that can be hanged on a wall and it should be irrigated to get more solid and hard.